Parsa Wildlife Reserve with an area of 499 sq. km. and gazetted in 1984, forms a contiguous protected landscape with the eastern boundary of the Royal Chitwan National Park. The Reserve is dominated with Chure Hills (sal with chir pine) and Bhavar (sal forest and mixed Sal forest) where soil is erodable and water is scarce resulting in poor habitat conditions for wildlife. Of Biodiversity, wild elephant population is estimated between 35-40 animals, 5-7 tigers, a stable population of Gaur numbering 75-100 animals, and some Nilgai. The bird species are around 527 in total.
Parsa Wildlife Reserve was established in 1984 as a Wildlife Reseve to preserve the habitat for Wild Asian elephant , and a variety of other fauna.During the Rana regime, the habitat had been well protected as a hunting reserve from 1846 to 1951. An area south of the Rapti River was first proposed as a rhinoceros sanctuary in 1958 (Gee, 1959), demarcated in 1963 (Gee, 1963; Willan, 1965) and later incorporated into the national park.
The reserve has sub-tropical monsoon climate. During spring ( Janjuary - March ) temperatures rise and water becomes scarce .During summer ( April - June ) the days become hot and humid with temperatures rising up to 40oC.Mean annual rainfall is 2400mm with about 90% falling in the monsoon from June to September. Monsoon rains cause dramatic floods and changes in the character and courses of rivers. , During dry period northerly winds from the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau are prevalent (Bolton, 1975; Laurie, 1978).
Kailash Bhatia is at top of hill, and is of religious significance. It houses two small temples (Dugdeswor Mahadev ) paying homage to the Hindu Gods of Shiva and Parbati.
Flora and Fauna
The forests are mainly composed of tropical and subtropical species. Sal forests compose about 90 percent of the Reserve’s vegetation. Along the banks of the rivers, riverine forests are found containing species like Khair and Silk cotton tree. In the north-eastern part of the Reserve, at higher altitudes,Sal and Pine forests occur. On the southern slope of the Siwalik hills, the forests are dominated by pine. Sabai grass a commercially important species, grows well on the southern face of the Churia hills.
The Reserve supports good populations of endangered species such as wild Asian elephant, Royal Bengal tiger, sloth bear, leopard, blue bull, wild dog, sambar deer, spotted deer, hog deer, barding deer, rhesus macaques, striped hyena, jungle cat and palm civet.
The Reserve also provides habitat for more than 500 species of birds. For example white breasted kingfisher, paradise fly catcher, large racquet tailed drongo, golden backed woodpecker are some of the common sights. Giant hornbill, one of the endangered kinds of snakes including common cobra, common and banded krait, rock python and King cobra are found here.
The reserve is accessible by bus on the Kathmandu-Birgunj highway or through Mahendra Rajmarg highway. The reserve headquarters is 8 hrs drive from Kathmandu. Simara airport is only 7 km away from the res erve headquarters. It takes only 15 minutes to reach Simara from Kathmandu by plane.
There is small guest house with four rooms at the headquarters. Visitors should provide their bedding .There is also a teahouse that can provide tea, snacks and Nepali food.
It is a recommended to bring a first -aid kit containing medicines.
An entry fee of NRs 500 has to be paid at the Reserve’s entrance Gate at Adhabhar. Camping inside the park should be made only at the designated areas. Do not purchase an illegal animal or plant products. Travel within the park between sunset and sunrise is prohibited. Respect all travel and religious sites. Flora and fauna are fully protected and must not be disturbed. Rubbish must be packed out, buried or disposed of in designated areas. Carry out non biodegradable items such as plastic bags and bottles.